Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in square slotted silicon metasurfaces supporting bound states in the continuum

Algorri, J.F., Dell'Olio, F., Roldán-Varona, P., Rodríguez-Cobo, L., López-Higuera, J.M., Sánchez-Pena, J.M., Dmitriev, V., Zografopoulos, D.C. (2022) Optics Express, 30 (3), pp. 4615-4630.

In this work, a silicon metasurface designed to support electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) based on quasi-bound states in the continuum (qBIC) is proposed and theoretically demonstrated in the near-infrared spectrum. The metasurface consists of a periodic array of square slot rings etched in a silicon layer. The interruption of the slot rings by a silicon bridge breaks the symmetry of the structure producing qBIC stemming from symmetry-protected states, as rigorously demonstrated by a group theory analysis. One of the qBIC is found to behave as a resonance-trapped mode in the perturbed metasurface, which obtains very high quality factor values at certain dimensions of the silicon bridge. Thanks to the interaction of the sharp qBIC resonances with a broadband bright background mode, sharp high-transmittance peaks are observed within a low-transmittance spectral window, thus producing a photonic analogue of EIT. Moreover, the resonator possesses a simple bulk geometry with channels that facilitate the use in biosensing. The sensitivity of the resonant qBIC on the refractive index of the surrounding material is calculated in the context of refractometric sensing. The sharp EIT-effect of the proposed metasurface, along with the associated strong energy confinement may find direct use in emerging applications based on strong light-matter interactions, such as non-linear devices, lasing, biological sensors, optical trapping, and optical communications.